Git process

Our Git process is an upgraded version of Github Flow.

Instead of a single master branch, we use two branches to record the history of the project. The master branch stores code that's currently in production. The staging branch serves as an integration branch for features and fixes. It holds data that reflects what's currently on staging.

The master branch is always deployable.

As we use Productive to manage our tasks, we use feature branches for fixes and new features. Names of branches are always prefixed with feature/ together with a feature name. For example, a branch for adding authentication would be named feature/authentication.

Feature branches are always branched out of master. They are also merged first into staging, and then into master if they are ready for production.

Never branch out of the staging branch and never merge staging into master

We use pull requests to add new features—pull requests initiate discussion about your commits. As they're tightly integrated with the underlying Git repository, everyone can see exactly what changes will be merged if they accept your request. When making a pull request, always make one for staging and one for master. The pull request workflow is defined separately for each project.

Why do you need the staging branch and why you should never merge it into master

We use the staging server so that our QA team could test our applications in an environment that is as close to production as possible. We can also work on multiple features in parallel. Those fixes and features need to be verified by our QA team and sometimes by the client as well. Sometimes, a feature may be ready for production while others aren't and are still being worked on. In that case, the staging branch contains multiple features, but only one needs to end up on master. That is why we do not branch out of staging and do not merge staging into master.

Note on workflow during early development:

While the application is still not deployed on a production server, you can omit the staging branch. Once the production server has been set up, and the first deploy has been up, create a staging branch.

Other important notes on using Git:

Commit messages are important, especially since Git tracks your changes and then displays them as commits once they've been pushed to the server. By writing clear commit messages, you can make it easier for other people to follow and provide feedback. Read how to write proper commit messages here.

Make small commits, following the Single Responsibility Principle in Git. This makes commits easier to review when making pull requests, and it's easier to notice what's going on when something goes wrong.

Don't use git add . Review what you're adding to your repo—this is the #1 cause of making unwanted changes.

Github Pull Request Descriptions

It's essential to write a good Pull Request description. Reviewers will usually read it before looking at the diff, so make sure it gives them enough context, so they know what they are looking at.

Another purpose of a good description is to provide the documentation for a future reference. A new developer might join the project in the future. The description will help him understand the motivation behind the implementation of a specific feature. Please note that any important information from the description should also be added to the main documentation in the project as a central reference point where the latest state of the project is documented.

A new rails project created with the Infinum rails template includes a pull request description template. The template is defined in the rails_project/.github/PULL_REQUEST_TEMPLATE.md file.

Task: [#__TASK_NUMBER__](__ADD_URL_TO_PRODUCTIVE_TASK__)

#### Aim


#### Solution

Replace __TASK_NUMBER__ with a number of the task from Productive (eg. 149) and __ADD_URL_TO_PRODUCTIVE_TASK__ with the url to the task (eg. https://app.productive.io/1-infinum/m/task/487456).

Aim

In the Aim section provide enough information for reviewers to have context for your changes.

Solution

Explain why things are done the way they are in this PR. Highlight the most important and/or controversial design decisions you have taken.

The description is a good place to include questions that came up during development.

This is also a good place to talk about performance and security considerations if any.

Default Pull Request Reviewers

It's a bit tedious to add the same reviewers to pull requests over and over again. Github allows us to set a list of default PR reviewers.

A new rails project created with the Infinum rails template includes a list of default pull request reviewers known as Code Owners). The list is defined in the rails_project/.github/CODEOWNERS file.

When rails new command is run, a developer is prompted to enter a list of Github username handles that are automatically added to the file as code owners.